The Romans attributed the beginning of their state to 753 BC. In the first two and a half centuries of its existence, Rome was ruled by kings, but in 510 BC the last king was expelled from Rome, and the republic began to be ruled by two consuls.
Ancient Rome Empire History
At the beginning of its history, Rome was a city-state that early acquired hegemony in Lazium, but the conquest of Italy and a number of lands outside Italy placed Rome at the head of a huge world power. The inhabitants of Italy became allies of Rome, the population of non-Italian regions – subjects, whose sovereign was the sovereign Roman people. In 88 BC, after the Allied war, the Italian allies received the rights of Roman citizenship, but the provincials remained for a long time under the unlimited “empire” of Rome, which oppressed and exploited them.
The main Roman conquests were made in two centuries, separating the equation of the rights of the patricians and plebeians from the beginning of the struggle between the nobility and the proletariat (366 – 133). Continuous wars ravaged the peasants and enriched the upper classes, which were composed of mergers with the patricians of wealthy plebeians. The new nobility, divided into senatorial and horseman estates, seized all the state posts of Rome and the exploitation of the provinces, and the lower classes of the population of Rome itself became an idle and corrupt mob.
About the middle of the 2nd century BC, the struggle between the nobility and the people began. The attempt of the Gracchus brothers to reform the state in a democratic direction failed and only revealed the weakness and unreliability of the proletariat as political support. Around 100 BC, a new force was formed in Rome, namely a mercenary army, which soon became an instrument in the hands of a number of ambitious people, arguing among themselves for power in the republic and trying to have either an aristocracy or a mass of people on their side. In this era, from time to time, by the very force of things, a new emergency power was created in Rome, sometimes purely personal, sometimes collegial (the first and second triumvirates), until such a new power was firmly established in the state in 30 BC. not without a fight by the defenders of antiquity.
Ancient Rome Empire History
The transformation of Rome from a city-state into the capital of a world power required a new organization of state authorities, which the imperial principle brought with it. The latter was at first a simple combination in the hands of one person of different republican positions and the sovereign power of the Roman people over the provinces, but little by little it turned into a real monarchy, which gradually erased the difference in the position of Rome (with Italy) and the provinces.
The Roman Empire in the West lasted about 500 years. In the first three centuries of its existence, its state structure still bore traces of its origin among the old republican institutions, but under Diocletian and Constantine the Great, the empire finally turned into an absolute monarchy, ruled by bureaucracy.
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