Roman numerals are numbers used by the ancient Romans in their non-positional number system. Roman numerals appeared 500 BC before the Etruscans. The Roman numbering system using letters has been common in Europe for two thousand years.
History of Roman Numbers
Roman numerals appeared 500 BC before the Etruscans, who could borrow some of the numbers from the Proto-Celts.
The Roman numbering system using letters has been common in Europe for two thousand years. Only in the late Middle Ages, it was replaced by a more decimal system of digits, convenient for calculations, borrowed from the Arabs. But until now, Roman numerals denote the dates on the monuments, the time on the clock and the pages of the book’s forewords.
1 – I (Latin unus)
5 – V (lat.quinque)
10 – X (lat.decem)
50 – L (lat.quinquaginta)
100 – (C lat. Centum)
500 – (D lat. Quingenti)
1000 – (M lat. Mille)
Roman numbers rules
To designate the numbers, 7 letters of the Latin alphabet were used: I = 1, V = 5, X = 10, L = 50, C = 100, D = 500, M = 1000. Intermediate numbers were formed by adding several letters to the right or left. First thousands and hundreds were written, then tens and ones. Thus, the number 24 was depicted as XXIV. The horizontal line above the symbol meant multiplication by a thousand.
Natural numbers are written by repeating these numbers. Moreover, if a larger digit is before a smaller one, then they add up (the principle of addition) if a smaller one is before a larger one, then the smaller one is subtracted from the larger one (subtraction principle). The last rule applies only to avoid a four-fold repetition of the same digit.
Using Roman numerals, you can also write large numbers. To do this, a line is put above the numbers that mean thousands, and a double line above the numbers that mean millions.
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